DISCONFIRMATION AND SATISFACTION IN THE LIGHT OF CULTURE
AN ANALYSIS FOR CHINESE AND U.S. AMERICAN CONSUMERS
Literature indicates that culture influences consumers' expectations on a product or service, how they perceive performance, handle disconfirmation resulting from the comparison of expectations and perceived product or service performance, as well as their satisfaction. The study compares the confirmation/disconfirmation-paradigm between Chinese and U.S. American consumers. The influence of Hofstede's (2001) cultural dimension on disconfirmation and satisfaction is examined. The results show that the process of customer satisfaction differs across national borders. For U.S. American consumers the perceived performance has a stronger effect on satisfaction than for Chinese consumers. A direct influence of expectations on satisfaction can be observed only for Chinese consumers. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance influence customers' disconfirmation and satisfaction. The findings of the study contribute to current marketing literature and management practice in order to explain differences in cross-cultural consumer behaviour. The implications relate to the management of expectations, product development, and quality management.